People have been creating sculptures and art since prehistoric times in order to show the world around. Artifacts are a great way to learn about ancient knowledge and ideas. Architectural structures are the most valuable and informative. For thousands upon thousands ofyears, people have been studying sun, moon, planets and other celestial bodies. Many of the archeological buildings built by the Neolithic are based upon what people saw in the heavens. They had studied the movements, and used them to create sculptures. Stonehenge is one of the oldest and most well-known structures. Although Stonehenge is well-known, much remains unknown about the structure. For historians and modern astrologists, the purpose and function of Stonehenge are still in dispute. In this paper we will discuss the most common theories and the ones with the greatest credence regarding Stonehenge’s function.
It is crucial to examine the physical and visual impact of Stonehenge before we can analyze its function. Stonehenge is situated in Whiltshire in England. It is located on a 300-foot wide bank or mound. The structure appears elevated because it is surrounded with a narrow ditch. This avenue appears to be a corridor that leads to the mound’s entrance. The Avenue appears to have an entrance marked with a Heel Stone. Only one of these Heel Stones is still standing today. Historians believe that two Heel Stones were present in the structure after it was fully formed. The sister Heel Stones were located just a few feet apart and allowed the sun to shine between them during solstices. The Slaughter Rock is located at one end of Avenue. It appears that it is the beginning of outermost circle. There are two main concentric circles located within the mound. These circles are made from upright stones. The outer circle is formed by a string or sarsen stones. It consists of 30 trilithons, which are two vertical slabs and one horizontal slab of rock, each about 20 feet in height. Magli states that Stonehenge’s outer circle of stones was intended to suggest a sphere in his book Archaeoastronomy. Bluestone is also found within the inner circle. It is difficult to understand how these smaller stones were acquired. We can see two concentric horseshoe-shaped concentric shapes within the two concentric circles. The opening of these horseshoes is aligned with Avenue. The outer horseshoe also has sarsen stones trilithons. However, they are both larger and smaller than the outer trilithons. These taller ones measure approximately 30 feet in height. Bluestone standing stones are used to fill the horseshoe’s inner part. Station stones can be found in the structure’s mound, just outside the horseshoes. It is believed that only two of these stones still exist, but they were used for the formation of the corners of an imaginary quadrilateral inside the mound. This intricate structure is highly detailed and well-planned, according to historians. It is very similar to Woodhenge, which is made from wood rather than stone. Stonehenge’s construction and alteration over several thousand years is something that we cannot see now. It is not possible to find any written information about Stonehenge’s Neolithic age, so we can only assume its original architectural design.
Stonehenge is shrouded in mystery. The mystery surrounding how the stones reached Salisbury Plains is another. Our knowledge is that the Neolithic people didn’t have any technology or wheels to transport huge bluestone rocks 150 miles from Wales. They were able to use the stones within the structure. Two major schools of thought speculate on how this might have happened. Some historians believe that glacial movements could have affected the location of the rock. For example, the bluestone rocks found today far from Stonehenge are now located further away than they were before the changes in our ice and land masses over long periods of time. Another argument is that glacial movement couldn’t have had such an impact, and this belief seems to be more widespread. Instead, we still don’t know the methods or tools used by the Neolithic people to move stones. These hypotheses are more than just answers. What is the reason this particular bluestone stone was chosen? What was the Neolithic people’s special significance of this bluestone stone? What did they have that we don’t?
However, the most important and controversial mystery surrounding Stonehenge is its function for the Neolithic population. The Neolithic people used the sun, moon, stars and moon to predict weather, crop yields, and food supply. Stonehenge’s particular architecture makes it possible to see both the summer solstice sunrise/sunset and the winter solstice sunset very close to each other through the openings that have been made in the rocks. But historians wonder if Stonehenge is there to view the summer solstice and winter solstice.
Standing in the middle Stonehenge mound, looking out at the Avenue and Heel Stones can we see the summer solstice align between the Heel Stones. Stonehenge was originally believed to have been built to commemorate the summer solstice. Another way of looking at the structure is possible. The winter solstice is visible in the middle of the Avenue if we stand near it and look toward the center. Additionally, the surrounding stones create a wall or “dome” that blocks all light from the point. This creates a stronger visual display than the summer sun, and may even be the purpose of the winter solstice’s highlighting.
Stonehenge, which is believed to be built to celebrate the winter solstice in January, supports this belief. Woodhenge, a nearby structure, was found to be architecturally very close to Stonehenge. However, the sun was shining in a completely different direction to Woodhenge. History suggests that the summer solstice was aligned exactly from Woodhenge’s perspective. Stonehenge, like woodhenge, is supposed to commemorate two opposite elements. Stonehenge, which is made from rocks and is considered a burial ground, is also believed to be there. It commemorates winter – the end of crops – and also the death if people. Woodhenge, a monument to life, is made of wood. It is also a symbol of the summer solstice. This is when nature experiences its peak growth.
The Neolithic period’s written history is lacking so we might never be able to know the full function of Stonehenge. We can understand some of the cultural values and thinking of Neolithic people by combining our hypotheses with what little we know about them and their love for tracking the stars. Stonehenge’s mystery is what makes it so fascinating. This structure also teaches us something about record keeping. Written records are essential to be able to comprehend the thoughts of people and understand why they built certain structures. Magli points out that artifacts of such long histories may have different or complementary functions. This mystery might never be solved.